Since their discovery, slow oscillations have been observed to group spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies assert that the slow oscillation downstate (DS) is preceded by slow spindles (10-12Hz), and followed by fast spindles (12-16Hz). Here, using both direct transcortical recordings in patients with intractable epilepsy (n=10, 8 female), as well as scalp EEG recordings from a healthy cohort (n=3, 1 female), we find in multiple cortical areas that both slow and fast spindles follow the DS. Although discrete oscillations do precede DSs, they are theta bursts (TB) centered at 5-8Hz. TBs were more pronounced for DSs in NREM stage N2 compared with N3. TB with similar properties occur in the thalamus, but unlike spindles they have no clear temporal relationship with cortical TB. These differences in corticothalamic dynamics, as well as differences between spindles and theta in coupling high frequency content, are consistent with NREM theta having separate generative mechanisms from spindles. The final inhibitory cycle of the TB coincides with the DS peak, suggesting that in N2, TB may help trigger the DS. Since the transition to N1 is marked by the appearance of theta, and the transition to N2 by the appearance of DS and thus spindles, a role of TB in triggering DS could help explain the sequence of electrophysiological events characterizing sleep. Finally, the coordinated appearance of spindles and DSs are implicated in memory consolidation processes, and the current findings redefine their temporal coupling with theta during NREM sleep.
Theta bursts precede, and spindles follow, cortical and thalamic downstates in human NREM sleep | bioRxivPosted: July 17, 2018
Sleep and emotion are both powerful modulators of the long-term stability of episodic memories, but precisely how these factors interact remains unresolved. We assessed changes in item recognition, contextual memory, and affective tone for negative and neutral memories across a 12 h interval containing sleep or wakefulness in 71 human volunteers. Our data indicate a sleep-dependent stabilization of negative contextual memories, in a way not seen for neutral memories, item recognition, or across wakefulness. Furthermore, retention of contextual memories was positively associated with time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Finally, our results offer partial support for the hypothesis that sleep attenuates emotional responses to previously memorized material.
The reptile Iguana iguana exhibits four states of vigilance: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS). Cerebral activity decreases in amplitude and frequency when passing from wakefulness to QS. Both parameters show a slight increase during AS. Heart rate is at a maximum during AW (43.8 ± 7.9 beats/min), decreases to a minimum in QS (25.3 ± 3.2 beats/min) and increases in AS (36.1 ± 5.7 beats/min). Tonical and phasical muscular activity is present in wakefulness, decreases or disappears in QS and reappears in AS. Single or conjugate ocular movements are observed during wakefulness, then disappear in QS and abruptly reappear in AS. Although these reptiles are polyphasic, their sleep shows a tendency to concentrate between 20:00 and 8:00 h. Quiet sleep occupies the greater percentage of the total sleep time. Active sleep episodes are of very short duration, showing an average of 21.5 ± 4.9 (mean ± SD). Compensatory increment of sleep following its total deprivation was significant only for QS. Reaction to stimuli decreased significantly when passing from wakefulness to sleep. It is suggested that the lizard I. iguana displays two sleep phases behaviorally and somatovegetatively similar to slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep in birds and mammals.